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1. crude petroleum is best described as a(n): a) pure substance. b) compound. c) simple mixture. d) complex mixture. 2. the first law of thermodynamics deals with a) conservation of mass. b) conservation of energy. c) creation of energy. d) destruction of energy. 3. great quantities of ________ have been used to insulate furnaces, heating ducts, and steam pipes. a) asbestos b) mica c) agate d) cotton 4. limestone is added to the iron producing mixture in a furnace to: a) add carbon to the mixture. b) provide an additional reducing agent to extract all of the iron from the ore. c) combine with silicates to remove impurities in the form of a slag. d) produce a more corrosion resistant iron. 5. one of the major problems associated with production of glass is a) the amount of energy required. b) the amount of sand required. c) the amount of limestone required. d) the amount of sodium carbonate. 6. the decomposition of 2 mol of water to hydrogen and oxygen requires 137 kcal of energy. the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form 2 mol of water a) requires 137 kcal. b) releases 137 kcal. c) requires more than 137 kcal. d) releases more than 137 kcal. 7. recycling of aluminum beverage cans is an example of the fact that a) increasing entropy is a spontaneous process. b) increasing entropy is a non-spontaneous process. c) decreasing entropy is a spontaneous process. d) decreasing entropy is a non-spontaneous process. 8. to make crude petroleum more useful, it must be a) distilled. b) filtered. c) reduced. d) washed with water. 9. during the last 25 years, american industry has reduced its consumption of energy per product by nearly: a) 5%. b) 15%. c) 30%. d) 50%. 10. steel, in all of its variations, is a(n) a) alloy. b) compound. c) element. d) pure substance. 11. an advantage of natural gas as a fuel is that it is: a) more abundant than coal. b) easy to locate and extract. c) easy to transport. d) all of the above. 12. perhaps the first mechanical device used to convert energy into a more useful form was the a) steam engine. b) water wheel. c) wind mill. d) nuclear reactor. 13. as opposed to most solids, when glass is heated, it: a) melts rapidly to a liquid over a narrow temperature range. b) goes directly into the gas phase a process known as sublimation. c) separates into its individual components. d) gradually softens over a wide temperature range. 14. the most abundant fossil fuel in the united states is a) coal. b) natural gas. c) petroleum. d) wood. 15. the solar energy absorbing molecules of plants that power photosynthesis are called a) carbohydrates. b) photovoltaics. c) solarases. d) chlorophylls. 16. the fact that a refrigerator requires energy to move heat from a colder object (the inside of the refrigerator) to a hotter object (the outside of the refrigerator) is a real life observation of which law of thermodynamics? a) first law b) second law c) third law d) fourth law 17. in any conversion of energy from one form to another, some of the energy ends up as: a) entropy. b) heat. c) electricity. d) radioactivity. 18. in comparing the actual relative costs of aluminum and steel, which of the following should be considered? a) cost of mining and transporting the ore b) cost of environmental maintenance c) cost of extracting the metal d) all of the above must be considered 19. approximately what percentage of solar radiation is used to power the water cycle? a) 10% b) 25% c) 50% d) 90% 20. cement and concrete have been used as structural materials for approximately: a) 50 years. b) 300 years. c) 1000 years. d) 2000 years. 21. probably the first metal to be freed from its ore by smelting was a) aluminum. b) copper. c) lead. d) iron. 22. as a source of raw materials, the earth's mantle is: a) readily accessible today. b) readily accessible today, but of little practical use. c) possibly accessible in the future, but probably not very useful. d) possibly accessible in the future, and probably very useful. 23. cigarette smoke and asbestos fibers act in such a way that each enhances the action of the other. this is known as a(n) ____ effect. a) isotope b) synergistic c) dilution d) concentration 24. for most uses, the most convenient form of energy is: a) chemical. b) electrical. c) mechanical. d) solar. 25. gasoline is a: a) compound. b) pure substance. c) simple mixture of c5 - c12 hydrocarbons. d) complex mixture of c5 - c12 hydrocarbons. 26. if we should run out of aluminum someday, it would be because we had: a) converted too much aluminum to another metal. b) destroyed too much aluminum. c) used too much aluminum. d) scattered aluminum too widely in the environment for efficient recovery. 27. in terms of composition, nine elements compose approximately what percentage of the earth's crust? a) approximately 50% b) approximately 75% c) approximately 90% d) greater than 95% 28. pottery is made nonporous by a) heating. b) firing. c) glazing. d) painting. 29. silicates are compounds composed of a) silicon only. b) silicon and metals. c) silicon, oxygen and metals. d) silicon, sulfur and metals. 30. the amount of iron on the earth today as compared to the amount of iron 120 years ago (approximately the beginning of the industrial revolution) is a) less. b) essentially the same. c) more. d) cannot be estimated or predicted. 31. the color of quartz crystals is due to a) the arrangement of silicon and oxygen atoms. b) inorganic impurities. c) magnesium. d) organic substances. 32. the common element of the organic portion of the lithosphere is a) carbon. b) hydrogen. c) oxygen. d) silicon. 33. the earth's crust is subdivided into a) core, mantle and atmosphere. b) lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere. c) troposphere, stratosphere and ionosphere. d) hydrosphere, geosphere and stratosphere. 34. the extraction of aluminum from its ore requires a great deal of a) heat. b) electricity. c) water. d) sunlight. 35. the major component of natural gas is a) ethane. b) methane. c) propane. d) butane. 36. the most abundant element in the earth's crust is a) carbon. b) hydrogen. c) oxygen. d) silicon. 37. the principal raw materials for making iron are iron ore, limestone and a) sand. b) coal. c) oil. d) chromium. 38. the thin film of air, water, and soil in which all life exists is only about 15 km thick and is called the a) atmosphere. b) stratosphere. c) biosphere. d) hemisphere. 39. the use of biomass as a solution to all energy needs is limited by a) lack of appropriate plants. b) lack of technology to process and burn biomass. c) biomass is not renewable. d) a shortage of land to grow plants for energy consumption. 40. there are many different types of ceramics. which of the following is a property of ceramic materials? a) they may withstand extremely high temperatures. b) they may have magnetic properties. c) they may conduct electricity at extremely low temperatures. d) all of the above 41. when coal burns a) chemical energy is converted to heat energy. b) heat energy is created. c) chemical energy is destroyed. d) heat energy is converted to electrical energy. 42. when coal is burned, mineral impurities are converted to a) metal oxide gases that go up the smokestack. b) carbon dioxide and water. c) metal oxide solids that remain behind as ash. d) all of the above 43. when scrap metal is recycled to make new iron and steel products, there is also a reduction in a) energy consumption. b) water pollution. c) air pollution. d) all of these 44. which material is characterized by a chain arrangement of sio4 tetrahedra? a) asbestos b) mica c) glass d) quartz 45. which of the following is not a major component of the earth's rocks and minerals? a) carbonates b) organic compounds c) oxides d) silicates 46. which of the following is not a fossil fuel? a) coal b) natural gas c) petroleum d) wood 47. which of the following products is not made from petroleum? a) industrial organic solvents b) synthetic fibers c) plastics d) all of the above are made from petroleum. 48. which of the following is not a problem associated with nuclear power plants? a) air pollution b) disposal of spent nuclear fuel c) tailings from the mining of uranium ore d) thermal pollution 49. which of the following alternative energy sources is not intermittent and does not require energy storage? a) solar cells b) windmills c) tides d) none 50. which physical state has the greatest entropy? a) solid b) liquid c) gas d) all have the same entropy


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